Stillwater, Minnesota High School Junior English Students Want To Know

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It couldn’t have been a better time and place. It was an exceptionally balmy April 11, 2014, and I was the guest in Stillwater High School teacher Peter Schield’s Junior English classes. Fresh spring air wafted gently though the open classroom windows, and much to their credit, the students conveyed very pleasant vibes as they entered the room, then later with their ‘thank you’ and/or pleasant nods as they exited the classroom. I so appreciated their polite withholding the desire to be sitting outside in the sunny breeze, or strolling in the park with a friend.

Taking a short rest on the edge of a table while answering students’ questions.

They had recently completed a unit of study on John Steinbeck’s novel, The Grapes of Wrath, which depicts a poor Oklahoma family who migrates to a far less pleasant time and place in California than the students could scarcely imagine; and I, their guest speaker, was there to tell them what it was like for those who didn’t leave the Oklahoma Dust Bowl——an experience unfortunately equally unpleasant. And I did share some of my experiences.

After my presentation, students asked some thought-provoking questions. Here are some of them: Did you have hope? What kind of food did you eat? Did a poisonous spider or insect ever bite you? It was very dry, so where did you get your water? Did you ever want to go ride the rails? What was your clothing like? Did you ever want to move to California? What did you do for fun? What was the saddest thing you experienced?

Walking the aisles to give students a close up view of my hometown location on an Oklahoma map, which I found on the internet. My hometown was within the area that the mapmaker had color highlighted as having suffered the worst dust storm damage during the 1930s.

There were more, but I think these “from their perspective” questions exemplify the range of thoughts these students had about my experiences. I hope you enjoyed this peek into the minds of this very nice group of teens, who made that day for me, one of the most beautiful days in the twilight years of my life.

Mother’s Depression-Era Vinegar Pie

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Perhaps Mother’s vinegar pie would have been more aptly named if it had been called Sweet ‘n Sour Dumplings, or better yet, Emergency Dessert. For in my book, THE DIRTY DAYS, my brief account of Mother’s vinegar pie surely did give the impression of an emergency situation. As desserts go, Mother’s vinegar pie wasn’t exactly spot on when it came to flavor and texture. I dare say it would have missed the mark considerably for a blue ribbon in the county fair pie contest, had she been naive enough to enter it.
It truly was kind of an emergency when Mother tried to satisfy her family’s sweet tooth when supplies were scarce and the times were tough. Undaunted and without apology, she would boil a mixture of water, sugar, vinegar and vanilla for about two minutes, then set it aside while she made a dough with flour, baking powder, salt, lard, milk, and maybe a beaten egg. She rolled out the dough on a floured surface to piecrust thickness and then cut it into strips, each about one inch by two inches.
She would bring the liquid mixture to a boil again and the strips of dough were dropped into the boiling liquid–one at a time. Mother would swirl the liquid for about three seconds before dropping in each dough strip. After the final strip was dropped in and swirled, she would loosely cover the pan and simmer the “dumplings” for about ten minutes.
I have to admit the end result of the depression-era dessert wasn’t as bad as it might sound. Its flavor actually fell short of terrible. The liquids and sugar mixture were cooked to an appealing, somewhat thick and pale caramel color, which compensated for the dumplings that were fairly rubberized due to the skimpy amount of shortening used in making them.
But with a drizzle of whole milk on the warm dumplings and thick juice, Mother’s efforts were not wasted. Most important, both then and in retrospect, her efforts were and are viewed as an act of love worthy of the highest award.
Pictured below is my version of Mother’s Vinegar Pie, which my husband Bob nicknamed, Fruitless Pie. I must admit that I bastardized my mother’s vinegar pie recipe. I added a bit more sugar, a teaspoon of butter and vanilla and used a mixture of half plain flour and half Bisquick to make the dumplings. Then I topped the dessert with Cool Whip. Although she has been gone for ten years, I can almost see Mother’s nod of approval and hear her soft chuckle.
 I always took it for granted that Mother created her recipe for Vinegar Pie, which she sometimes referred to as Vinegar Cobbler. Much to my surprise I recently found recipes on line for vinegar pie and cobbler, both calling for a top crust over the dumplings, then baked in the oven. My frugal mother simply cooked the liquids and dumplings on the stovetop and never applied a piecrust.

I always took it for granted that Mother created her recipe for Vinegar Pie, which she sometimes referred to as Vinegar Cobbler. Much to my surprise I recently found recipes on line for vinegar pie and cobbler, both calling for a top crust over the dumplings, then baked in the oven. My frugal mother simply cooked the liquids and dumplings on the stovetop and never applied a piecrust.
Having sampled my rendition of Mother’s Vinegar Pie (Cobbler), my husband and I recommend that anyone interested in making Mother’s depression-era dessert should select one of the on-line recipes.
Having sampled my rendition of Mother’s Vinegar Pie (Cobbler), my husband and I recommend that anyone interested in making Mother’s depression-era dessert should select one of the on-line recipes.
Here’s a link to a Martha Stewart recipe for Pioneer Vinegar Pie–a significant contrast to the “recipe” used by my mother.

Self-Reliance and the 1930s Frugal Farm Woman: Denim Quilts

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Since I only briefly mentioned my mother’s quilt making and her creative money-saving cooking in my book THE DIRTY DAYS, I would like to share a little more information about these two endeavors. First, I’ll comment on denim quilts in this April 15th post, and in my May 1st post, I’ll share my thoughts about her Vinegar Pie. Both writings, I believe, are examples of women’s self-reliance in the 1930s.

Mothers of the Great Depression, especially those in the 1930s Dust Bowl, were often artistically ahead of their times. For instance, when I was a teen in the late 1930s I thought my mother was rather cool when she saved the relatively new-looking backs of the legs of my father’s and brothers’ worn-out blue denim bib overalls to use in her quilt-making.

She also saved scraps of the flour sack floral print material left over after she made me or my sister a dress. She would creatively incorporate the colorful floral pieces with the denim pieces. The contrast of the two materials made a strikingly attractive quilt.  I noticed that my friends’ mothers also recycled coarse blue denim overalls material and gave it and the pretty print flour sack scraps a second life in the creation of their quilts.

I like to think the denim overalls material symbolizes the men’s persevering labor and the flour sack print speaks for the roll women played in the family’s survival of the 1930s hard times.

In retrospect, there was nothing backwoods about a quilt made of squares and triangles of faded denim overalls material interspaced between pieces of floral flour sack prints.

Pictured below is a denim jacket I bought about ten years ago, which to me is a take-off on the denim quilt idea. Women of the 1930s could never have imagined that oday’s woman might wear a denim jacket with big earrings and high heel shoes--a trendy look  that would be quite a contrast to the dress standard of their era!
Pictured above is a denim jacket I bought about ten years ago, which to me is a take-off on the denim quilt idea. Women of the 1930s could never have imagined that today’s woman might wear a denim jacket with big earrings and high heel shoes–a trendy look that would be quite a contrast to the dress standard of their era!

Today, in boutiques, department stores and trendy mail-order catalogs one can find numerous items made of denim with floral print trim, beads, embroidery, and any number of innovative and funky decor adorning all sorts of jackets, skirts, purses and home decorations. Yes, those artistic, quilt-making mothers of the 1930s were decades ahead of their times!

Frugal Farm Women Made Flour Sack Dresses

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Poor farm women during the 1930s Great Depression didn’t have much time or money for sewing clothing. Time was especially precious to the women of the Dust Bowl because there was almost constant dirt causing problems or requiring their attention. Without enough water, or any modern conveniences, cleaning chores were tediously planned and performed. Scraping together enough ingredients to make a meal took time to execute, as well.

But those cited examples are only the tip of the iceberg as far as demonstrating Dust Bowl women’s resourcefulness and self-reliance. For sure, there wasn’t much time for flexibility in their routine. And finding time to make a garment demanded extraordinary flexibility.

Traditionally, a woman’s time with a needle would have been spent in mending, or altering their children’s old clothing, or making quilts. And any cash in pocket was slated mostly for costs of running the farm, a few food staples such as flour, or very possibly for shoe repair. Often a significant amount of money would be needed to pay the doctor for delivering the next baby.

So it was a godsend when the flourmills began to package flour in cotton sacks made of attractive floral print material. The women took a liking to that immediately. So, since my mother and most of the other moms who lived in the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression were also frugal women, they saved the print materials from flour sacks to sew dresses for their daughters.

A picture of me wearing a flour sack dress Mother made in material with tiny blue flowers.
A picture of me wearing a flour sack dress Mother made in material with tiny blue flowers.

Dress patterns were an extra expense, and the women often designed their daughter’s dresses by changing some of the detailing of an old or borrowed pattern. They also made the dresses with extra-wide hems, and when it came time to lengthen the skirt, my mother and some of the other moms sewed a narrow, bright colored trim, or lace, on the faded line where the old hemline once was.

The old saying Where there’s a will, there’s a way surely fits my resourceful, self-reliant Mother and the many others like her in the Dust Bowl and throughout our nation during one of our most historically difficult times.

For more information about those times, see my book THE DIRTY DAYS.

A Generation Fading Away

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Mother: A pioneer woman, who stuck it out with her husband on the drought-stricken plains of the Oklahoma Dust Bowl.
Strong, determined, hopeful. He continued to say, "It's going to get better. It has to."
Daddy: Strong, determined, hopeful. He continued to say, “It’s going to get better. It has to.”

While watching the History Channel Dust Bowl special a few years ago and the recent Ken Burns PBS Dust Bowl Documentary, I have appreciated the brief but touching testimonies of the now elderly survivors of that historic period.

Truthfully, I wish those articulate elderly survivors—approximately my age—had authored a book-length account of their parents’ courage following their decision not to flee the Dust Bowl. The day-by-day, year by year heroism of those parents has not been given the amount of ink Americans deserve to see in written history.

Sadly the children of those 1930s parents are fading away, and scarcely any have recorded the up-close and personal history of their parents’ courage, perseverance and physical endurance, much less record the ways in which those hard times impacted their own lives as youngsters.

Photographer Dorothea Lange’s photos of the weary Oklahoma migrant mother and her forlorn children say a great deal about the suffering of those who fled the Dust Bowl for California. Lange’s powerful images are a good backup to Steinbeck’s depiction of the migrants. However, I wish there had been many more photographs and more written depictions of the folks and their children who bravely remained on the drought-stricken dusty plains.

It is alarming to me that the children of the Dust Bowl, dubbed The Greatest Generation, are now in their late seventies to nineties and passing away at a rapid rate. So the chance of additional recorded accounts of the heroism and strength of the pioneer men, women and children who endured the 1930s Dust Bowl is very slim.

Fortunately, Steinbeck’s splendid novel lives on as a credible depiction of the Okie immigrant’s desperate struggles to survive in California. My novel, The DIRTY DAYS, is based on my life as I actually grew up in the Dust Bowl but with the intention to portray and honor those who didn’t flee from the Oklahoma plains during our country’s worst hard time. It received the publisher’s Editors Choice and Rising Star awards.

My father is delineated in my story with both strengths and weaknesses, with the latter trait garnering the reader’s sympathy. My mother, whom I call a pioneer woman in my book, sometimes tampers with the truth to protect her family’s peace of mind. Both are typical of Dust Bowl parents. Molly, my alter ego and narrator of my story, represents the real me and my friends in the 30s.

Readers tell me it’s good that my story doesn’t end when the drought and dust storms are over. Rather, it briefly takes the reader into Molly’s and her parent’s post Dust Bowl life, and it shows how their acquired 1930s life skills of strength and determination continued to serve them well.

My two children, in my real life and in my novel, express hope that my story will contribute something noteworthy to the recorded history of the Dust Bowl survivors’ vital role during our nation’s worst time.


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In Search of Turkey Creek

We left Rock Cemetery in search of Turkey Creek (Teal Creek, in my story).  I knew if I could find Turkey Creek, I could find the homestead.  On sheer instinct, I directed my son, Dan, to drive straight down the country road we approached as we left the cemetery.

We drove about 4 miles, crossed over the road that led to the town on the right, then drove another mile or two.  And there it was—Turkey Creek.  I felt a number of emotions.  Pride and surprise that I could so easily find my way after almost 70 years—and nostalgia that I was only a few miles from my childhood home!

Turkey Creek (Teal Creek in THE DIRTY DAYS)
Turkey Creek (Teal Creek in THE DIRTY DAYS)

The Homestead

We crossed Turkey Creek, then turned left onto an unmarked road, which I knew in my heart, was the road to my old home.  To the right of us, once we made the turn, was a large empty field where one of our neighbors once lived.  All that remained was an old oak tree that once stood next to our neighbor’s home.  I knew a mile to the left further up the road, I would find my homestead.

When we got there, the tiny house, old barn and chicken coop no longer stood where my former homestead once was, and the reality of “that was then, this is now” competed with my nostalgia.

The entire area was cordoned off by a four-wire line of barbed fencing, and in front of where my home once stood was a locked steel gate.

Ginger expressed surprise that the distance between the house to the corner of the main road where the school bus picked me up in the mornings and dropped me off at the end of the school day seemed a longer distance than described in my book. I agreed. Dan was surprised to see the creek so close to where my house had been. I thought to myself, it did look closer than I remembered.

Although there was nothing left but the fields of green, no longer brown, I could close my eyes and see the barn, old Nellie, the chicken coop, and our tiny three-room home.  No running water, no electricity!  I was both saddened and warmed by my sudden memories.

The old homestead (house, barn, and chicken coop now gone).
The old homestead (house, barn, and chicken coop now gone).

My children were disappointed, as was I, that almost all buildings from my youth were now gone.  Not surprising, I guess, after almost 70 years.  I mentioned we should drive up the road to see our closest neighbor.  I’d heard from old friends that the house might still be standing.

A Neighbor’s House

As we started up the road, we could see in the distance a house silhouetted on the horizon—and it looked to me as we approached it just as it did in my youth. But as we drove up to it, what I saw was a shell of a home sagging and crumbling with windows and doors agape and long ago deserted.

Still, my daughter and son were ecstatic to finally see a remnant from my youth.  The neighbor’s house, now in disrepair, was years ago much nicer and bigger than our tenant farm home ever was.  How I wish I could have shown my children my own home and farm!  How I wish I could have seen it again—for myself!

Old abandoned home of our closest neighbor.
Old abandoned home of our closest neighbor.

So after a long but exciting day we left the area and headed back to Altus to our hotel.  Along the way, I pointed out the location of the gas station, now gone, where I waited each morning for the school bus.  I drew my children’s attention to the bridge where my brother Jr. jumped and broke his arm.

The Way Back

I must say that although visiting the place where I grew up was for me a sentimental journey, I think my children felt it was even more awesome visiting the sites of my youth than I did.

I could imagine that to them, the area looked rather flat, beige and bleak, and I’m sure they couldn’t help mentally and emotionally comparing their childhood setting in the north, where amid lush green rolling terrain there were tree-shaded, two-story white farm houses complemented by tall silos flanking huge, red barns and other farm buildings.

Such scenes were within walking distance, or a quick drive, or bike ride from their home where they grew up in a western Wisconsin town.

So that’s the story of what is likely to be my final return to my childhood home. But it’s certainly not the end of my memories or my stories about growing up in the 1930s Oklahoma Dust Bowl!

Next week:  MY JOURNEY HOME: Final Thoughts (a short video)

MY JOURNEY HOME—The Town Where I Grew Up

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Oklahoma City

On October 3, 2012, my two adult children and I left the Minneapolis/St. Paul airport for what would be my final journey home to the farm and small town nearby where I grew up in the Oklahoma Dust Bowl during the Great Depression.

We landed in Oklahoma City where we spent an afternoon and evening with family who now live in the area.  Our original plan was to caravan as a group to the location of my story, THE DIRTY DAYS, a tiny town near Altus, OK. But, three weeks earlier, my younger sister Sue (pictured with me on the cover of my book), passed away—and so our plans were changed.  Sue and her family were no longer able to journey with us.

My son and daughter with me at the hotel in Altus—in front of a map of the area.
My son and daughter with me at the hotel in Altus—in front of a map of the area.

So my son, daughter, and I drove by car from Oklahoma City to Altus—a trip of about 2 ½ hours.  Along the way, I reminisced about my childhood—and my children listened patiently.  I couldn’t believe how many random thoughts about my growing up in this place that were long forgotten all came rushing back to me as we drove by memory-inducing sites and places.

Arriving in Altus

We checked into a delightful hotel in Altus, a Hampton Inn, with lots of rural charm and ambiance.  Luck was on our side—I got a FREE suite upgrade!  My daughter did, too.  My son was down the hall in a regular room and I slept that night feeling the security and warmth that comes from knowing your children are safely sleeping in rooms next door.

The morning after we arrived in Altus, my younger sister Jane and her husband Charlie arrived from Oklahoma City to join us for the short drive to the town my daddy, Mother, and I visited often—for supplies, to go to school, to see the banker—a town of approximately 400 people—similar in size to what it was when I was a youth.  We left the hotel in Altus in two vehicles.

A mural on a building that sits on Main Street.
A mural on a building that sits on Main Street.

Main Street

We drove for about 30 minutes, then arrived in the town near the tenant farm where I grew up. My children were eager and ripe with questions—mostly questions about the locations of the events in my novel.  Can we find “Wanda May’s” house?  Which building was the “bank?”  What about “Mr. Offner’s store?”  Where’s the “school?”

So much had changed in 70 years!  Many of the businesses on Main Street were now empty—and old!  I couldn’t find “Wanda May’s” house—torn down many years ago, I supposed.  My school was no longer there—but a new school had been built in its place on the same location.  The old hardware store—“Mr. Elkhart’s” in my book, was the only business I recognized.  Much bigger now and in a new building—and very successful.

Empty buildings on Main Street.
Empty buildings on Main Street.

We stopped for a delightful visit with the current manager of the store, still family-owned after over one hundred years. It was the manager’s great-grandfather who started the business—and it was his son (the manager’s grandfather) who knew my daddy.  My heart leaped to find at least one thing I could hang on to from my growing-up years so long ago.

Our Goodbyes

At the end of our delightful conversation with the manager, my son, Dan, asked for directions to the cemetery.  Armed with the information and intent on seeing my baby sister’s 82-year-old gravesite, we took one last drive down Main Street, then drove to nearby Rock Cemetery. The jovial mood set earlier was now replaced with melancholy.

Next Week:  MY JOURNEY HOME—The Road to the Cemetery

THE DIRTY DAYS–How Growing Up in the Dust Bowl Impacted My Life

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Almost eighty years ago!  A rare picture of me when I was 8.  We didn’t have the money to afford very much photography when I was growing up.
Almost eighty years ago! A rare picture of me when I was 8. We didn’t have the money to afford very much photography when I was growing up.

I’ve often been asked “How did your experiences growing up in the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression impact your life?  What lasting effects did your growing up during that difficult time and place have on you?  And, how much of what’s described in your book, THE DIRTY DAYS, really happened?”

Here’s my answer to all three questions:  I had so little growing up, and I believe that fact made me appreciate the better times I experienced later in my life.  When I was a child, a store-bought dress, bakery bread sandwiches, shoes that weren’t two sizes too big, a bathroom inside the house, and electricity were luxuries we didn’t have.  But for many decades since then, I’ve enjoyed having such luxuries, plus many more, and because acquiring them was such a long, hard struggle, I’ve never taken them for granted.

As I was growing up, I often dreamed of wearing pretty clothes, like the “children” did in my old, battered-up Sears catalog.  And going to school with well-dressed girls who came from wealthier families could make me feel like my clothes appeared too small or too big and tacky.  To this day, I cherish store-bought clothing—although I usually buy only clothing on sale and then I alter whatever I buy to make it fit—larger, smaller, wider, shorter.  I guess what I’m saying is—I’m very frugal to this day, but I still do relish dressing up.

Due to the short supply of water for personal cleanliness and other uses during my growing-up years in the Dust Bowl, I’ve always been somewhat of a need-to-be-clean kind of person. And because I learned to be so very frugal then, I still oftentimes get by without some luxuries I actually could afford, or I renovate what I have instead of buying new things or conveniences.

For example, I once found an old wood headboard at a farm sale and removed its worn-down varnish and refinished the beautiful wood.  Then I “commissioned” my husband to build a bookcase with the wood for our daughter’s bedroom.  Another time I bought an adult coat at a rummage sale, and from its good-as-new material, I made a winter jacket and cap for our then six-year-old son.

Growing up in the country without a telephone or an automobile readily available, I often felt isolated and friendless.  It seemed like my best friends in my early years were the “children” in the old beat-up Sears catalog that I brought with me when we moved from Arkansas to Oklahoma.  Today I still cherish friends and reach out to support or help anyone in need.  I’m also very loyal and patriotic as a result of my entering adulthood during WWII.

A Smartphone image of me at one of my signings at age 87. What a difference 80 years can make!
A Smartphone image of me at one of my signings at age 87. What a difference 80 years can make!

So basically, I’m saying my experiences growing up made me what I am today, the best part of me anyway.  Growing up in southwest Oklahoma during the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl has served me well. I’m resilient, determined and full of hope—even at the ripe old age of 87.

Finally:  How much of my story, THE DIRTY DAYS, is fiction and how much really happened?  Of course, the names of people and locations and even the chronology of some events have been changed.  But I have to say most of the events and stories in my novel really happened.  As it states on the cover of my book, “A novel based on her life.” And it is.

THE DIRTY DAYS—What I’d Like Readers to Take Away from My Story

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I, like so many last week, watched the Ken Burns PBS special on the Dust Bowl.  Here is what I personally took away from the 4-hour documentary:  It was a powerful reminder of my difficult years growing up during that terrible time and place, which I document in my historical fiction novel.

And like Ken Burns’s deeply moving dust bowl documentary, my novel, The Dirty Days, isn’t JUST about the hardship; it’s also about perseverance, resilience, hope, support for the less fortunate, and respect for family–all interlaced within the context of a national tragedy. It’s the combination of these themes that provides the texture to the story of the heroic survival of the noble folks and their children who managed to live through the devastating 1930s.

Mother and Daddy’s wedding picture. All dressed up in better times (several years before we moved to Oklahoma, with hopes for a better future. Unfortunately, we headed instead into what became known as the Oklahoma Dust Bowl.).

Perseverance, combined with hope that things WOULD get better, was an overriding theme of the 1930s dust bowl. It motivated the farmers and their families and contributed to their survival of the poverty and ever-present dust storms. The characters in The Dirty Days (who are based on real people with real struggles) demonstrate perseverance in nearly everything they do and say and are what causes readers of my novel to comment, “It’s a gripping story. I couldn’t put it down.” And that is what I would like all of my readers to say.

In both Mr. Burns’s documentary and my story, there are clear examples of resilience, the ability to bounce back under even the most harsh of circumstances.  Resilience is ever-present in the stories about the dust bowl, as the men, women, and children humbled by the debilitating weather conditions and crippling poverty, focus their efforts on the belief that better times have to come–eventually.

Support for the less fortunate was touchingly portrayed in the documentary and is also found in my novel. My protagonist, Molly, and her parents are the recipients of such support, and they, too, perform noble acts of kindness for those even less fortunate than themselves. I think about the many times my mother served just a little bit of the food we had struggled to provide for ourselves to wandering tramps, who were mostly married men and fathers, as they made their way across the plains toward some place—any place—where they might find work.

Last, but certainly not least, respect for and strength of family was befittingly portrayed in the Ken Burns documentary and is repeatedly portrayed throughout my story. Such respect is seen right up to the surprising good deeds of Molly’s step-great-grandmother during the story’s fast-moving conclusion.

I hope readers of The Dirty Days will admire my protagonist, Molly, her parents, and their kind neighbors who showed so gallantly that you can accomplish or survive just about anything–if you dig deep, persevere, and don’t lose hope–even under the most challenging of times/circumstances.

Daddy years later, during hard times, collecting what few eggs he could find from the chicken coop.

I think readers will feel empathy for the characters in my book, just like I did for the folks whose experiences were so touchingly depicted in the Ken Burns documentary.  I hope so.  While the characters and events in my story are fictionalized, they all existed in real life–and their tragedies and triumphs really happened.  They, like me, were survivors, too, of that emotionally and physically demanding time and place.

Here’s what I’d love for readers of The Dirty Days to say after reading my story:  I feel as though I, too, was in the midst of surviving the 1930s Dust Bowl and Great Depression–experiencing “first-hand” what it was like to endure and overcome this terrible tragedy.

Growing Up in the Dust Bowl During the Great Depression

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In many ways, growing up in the Oklahoma Dust Bowl during the Great Depression was a double whammy! There was the extreme heat, drought, dust in your food, your eyes and lungs–and we were terribly poor.

I was the daughter of a struggling tenant farmer and it was disturbing to me to overhear my parents’ worries and to witness their extreme efforts to raise productive crops on the rain-starved plains, with topsoil depleted by lack of water and high winds.

And, due to the severe economic hard times, the little cash we earned for crops fell far short of providing a living wage. I rarely knew what it meant to have a truly full stomach.

My little sister and I sitting on a neighbor’s car the day after a dust storm. Our barn is visible behind the car on the left. I’m wearing a pair of knee highs (a favorite gift from my step-grandmother several years earlier). I actually had to cut the toes to accommodate my growing feet. I wore these knee highs that I loved for many years.

Poor children like me were thin, had few clothes for school, and with the shortage of water, we didn’t appear as clean and well groomed as the well-off landowner’s children, who were plumper and healthier, due to a better diet. And they wore freshly laundered clothing every day.

But I think that like most families, poor and otherwise, in that time and place, my family was resilient and determined; for we managed to survive and in spite of all the stresses, we at times even enjoyed some soft humor and had a little fun once in a while.

I think I internalized all of my difficult early growing-up experiences in a positive way, and when the time and circumstances were right, I had accumulated the where-with-all to make a better life for myself.

While my story,The Dirty Days,is a fictional memoir based on my life growing up on the dusty plains of Oklahoma during the Great Depression, the characters and events are based on real people and their very real struggles with poverty, drought, dust storms, and disaster.